Our mission is to develop IFRS Standards that bring transparency, accountability and efficiency to financial markets overview of indian constitution pdf the world. Session expired, please refresh your browser.
An error has occurred, please try again later. Constitution of 1982, is Turkey’s fundamental law. It establishes the organization of the government and sets out the principles and rules of the state’s conduct along with its responsibilities in regards to its citizens. The constitution was ratified on 7 November 1982. It replaced the earlier Constitution of 1961. The first constitution of the Ottoman Empire was adopted in 1876 and revised in 1908.
The current constitution was ratified by popular referendum during the military junta of 1980-1983. Since its ratification in 1982, the current constitution has overseen many important events and changes in the Republic of Turkey, and it has been modified many times to keep up with global and regional geopolitical conjunctures. The Article 4 declares the immovability of the founding principles of the Republic defined in the first three Articles and bans any proposals for their modification. Fundamental Aims and Duties of the State is defined in Article 5. Part Two of the constitution is the bill of rights.
Article Five of the Constitution sets out the raison d’être of the Turkish state, namely “to provide the conditions required for the development of the individual’s material and spiritual existence”. Many of these entrenched rights have their basis in international bills of rights, such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which Turkey was one of the first nations to ratify in December 1948. Article 26 establishes freedom of expression and Articles 27 and 28 the freedom of the press, while Articles 33 and 34 affirm the freedom of association and freedom of assembly, respectively. Article Seven provides for the establishment of a unicameral parliament as the sole organ of expression of sovereign people. Article Six of the Constitution affirms that “sovereignty is vested fully and unconditionally in the nation” and that “the Turkish Nation shall exercise its sovereignty through the authorised organs as prescribed by the principles laid down in the Constitution”. Article Nine affirms that the “judicial power shall be exercised by independent courts on behalf of the Turkish Nation”. Part Four, Section Two allows for a Constitutional Court that rules on the conformity of laws and governmental decrees to the Constitution.
Per Article Eight, the executive power is vested in the President of the Republic and the Council of Ministers. President, in the capacity of Commander-in-Chief. A revision of the Constitution was approved on September 13, 2010 by a 58 percent approval given by the 39 million people who voted. The change would allow the National Assembly to appoint a number of high-court judges, would reduce the power of the military court system over the civilian population and would improve human rights. The changes also remove the immunity from prosecution the former leaders of the early 1980s military coup gave themselves. The Constitution of 1982 has been criticized as limiting individual cultural and political liberties in comparison with the previous constitution of 1961. Currently Circassian, Kurdish, Zaza, Laz languages can be chosen as lessons in some public schools.