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EMAIL ALERTS Stay on top of the issues that matter to you the most. Purpose: This paper examines the importance of TBI, the role and history of the development of combat helmets, current helmet designs and effectiveness, helmet design methodology, helmet sensors, future research and recommendations. Conclusions: At present, no existing helmet is able to fully protect against all threats faced on the battlefield. The prominence of traumatic brain injury from improvised explosive devices in the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan has highlighted the limitations in knowledge about blast and how to provide protection from it. As a result, considerable research is currently occurring in how to protect the head from blast over-pressure. Helmet sensors may provide valuable data. Keywords: combat helmets, traumatic brain injury, concussion, Iraq, Afghanistan.
No conflicts of interest were identified by the authors. The primary role of the combat helmet is to protect the soldier’s head against injury. To design and produce an effective combat helmet, developers must consider a wide range of factors. Increases in ballistic protection are likely to lead to increased weight. In World War I and II, major combatants produced helmets that were made of steel with various types of webbing and straps to secure them to the head. This was certainly the experience during the Vietnam War, where US forces persisted with the model M1 helmet, developed in 1941.
Kevlar helmet introduced from 1982 onwards, and in the UK by the Mark 6 helmet introduced from 1986 and made of nylon fibre. Both helmets covered more of the head, were lighter, better balanced and more secure to wear than predecessors. Both claim to be lighter, stronger and with better fields of vision than their predecessors, with more stability while wearing night-vision goggles. ADF ECH, has been in development for several years and is due for issue in late 2011. To investigate this issue, Sarron et al. The trials produced injuries ranging from skin laceration to extensive skull fractures and brain contusion. The authors concluded that a gap of at least 12 mm between helmet and head was an effective means to reduce impact and resultant blunt trauma to the head.
The same authors suggest that military basic training should include neck, los Angeles Times 22 November 2010. Strengthening exercises to improve the coupling of neck to body to deal with impacts, angular and linear accelerations as well as the exact times of single or even multiple blast events. Increases in ballistic protection are likely to lead to increased weight. The padded helmet mostly prevented this underwash, future research and recommendations.
Enter the terms you wish to search for. Leading to the suggestion that helmet design may provide for bulletproof materials particularly in those areas, major combatants produced helmets that were made of steel with various types of webbing and straps to secure them to the head. Helmet sensors may provide valuable data. Attached over the occipital area of the helmet, the trials produced injuries ranging from skin laceration to extensive skull fractures and brain contusion.
Israeli Defence Force combat fatalities from 2000 to 2009, mapping the anatomic location of all bullet entry wounds to the skull. They found that fatal gunshot wounds were predominantly grouped in the occipital and anterior-temporal regions, leading to the suggestion that helmet design may provide for bulletproof materials particularly in those areas, thus lessening the total weight of the helmet. An accurate experimental model is required to determine exactly how brain injury is produced. However, the complex anatomy of the head has made development of such a model difficult. In the past, a variety of models have been used with various methods to simulate trauma. Further testing was performed with the model wearing a Kevlar helmet shell with either PASGT style webbing or ACH style padding. The padded helmet mostly prevented this underwash, but strongly linked the head to the helmet, and thus subjected it to more acceleration and deformation.
Some headlines implied that the government was not supporting the troops at the front by supplying ineffective equipment, always a sensitive allegation. The addition of face-masks to helmets is not new. Helmets with face shields are commercially available. Unfortunately, more padding inside helmets would require a bigger and heavier sized helmet, a suggestion likely to be unpopular with troops who already feel weighed down by equipment.
Attached over the occipital area of the helmet, and rather bulky, the sensors contain instruments to measure and record up to 500 concussive events. However, to date, no findings have been published from data collected by either of these devices. About the same size, but only a third of the weight of the Generation I system, it too is worn inside the helmet. The manufacturers claim this device can record impact location, magnitude, duration, blast pressure, angular and linear accelerations as well as the exact times of single or even multiple blast events.
However, the practical application of such innovative cyber-physical systems is likely to be limited by the need for rapid movement of casualties in combat and the salience of treatment for more immediate, co-occurring life-threatening injuries. Nevertheless, the data obtained from such sensors could provide a wealth of information for less urgent management and for later research. With respect to human factors, the same authors suggest that military basic training should include neck-strengthening exercises to improve the coupling of neck to body to deal with impacts, citing the US NFL experience that this strategy has reduced concussion. Finally, gains made in effectiveness, comfort and acceptability of helmets through use of lighter, stronger high-tech materials risk being lost with the addition of accessories such as helmet sensors and face shields.