Mandarin is one of five major regional languages of China. It spreads wider than any other regional language, from the whole northern part of China down to Yunnan Province in the southwest corner of China. In that big area there are many regional history of chinese characters pdf in vocabulary, so somebody who moves from Beijing to Yunnan could not understand people there who were speaking their own language, Yunnanhua. It is nobody’s native language, but a good average between various language forms and a common language everyone can understand and communicate with.
Although it is based on the Beijing dialect, it is not the same as Beijing dialect. There are some minor differences in these standards. Mandarin is spoken by over 800 million people around the world, more than any other language. Most people emigrating from the Greater China region now speak Mandarin, while in the past it used to be Cantonese or Taishanese, another local Chinese dialect. Standard Mandarin is one of the six official languages at the United Nations. Each Hànzì has its own pronunciation and meaning.
An ordinary dictionary will contain about 10,000 characters. Spoken Mandarin uses very many compound words, words that combine meanings the way English does in such terms as “machine gun,” “fire truck,” “playground,” etc. The Hanzi are ideograms: one character means one idea. The various concepts are derived from the ideograms by combining them. Latin alphabet as you really cannot see the spelling from Hanzi characters. Some Chinese characters were originally fairly concrete pictures of the things they represent.
As time went on, people chose to write simpler versions that are easier to write but do not look so much like the real thing, just as people sometimes draw stick men rather than drawing people with real-looking bodies, arms, legs, etc. Most characters, however, are made by combining pictures, using one to give a general meaning, and the other to represent a sound. The “ma” part is only there to represent the sound. Just as the English used in Great Britain favors “petrol” but the English used in the United States almost always uses “gasoline,” different regional languages in China may use different compound words to name the same thing. In Spoken Mandarin, most words are character compounds because over time Mandarin lost many sounds that existed in earlier forms of Chinese. Due to the loss of sounds, many Chinese words ended up becoming homophones, thus more characters were added to words to tell them apart. Mandarin is defined and designed based on Beijing accent.
In China, there are over 600,000 dialects and more accents although they all use Chinese language and characters, but their pronunciation and some expressions are totally different. China must find a standard pronunciation to make all people to understand and communicate. Beijing has been the capital city of China for more than 1,000 years, so China defined Beijing Accent as standard Mandarin. Beijing also has some local dialects that are not included by Mandarin or standard Chinese language yet.
But different from the other dialects, Beijing is capital city, political, economic, culture and education center of China, more and more new Beijing dialects have been or will be accepted as Mandarin or standard Chinese language. But, the other dialects, such as Shanghainese, Cantonese, Hakka etc. The following samples are some Beijing dialects which are not accepted as standard Mandarin yet by now. The following samples are some Beijing dialects which have been already accepted as Mandarin in recent years. Mandarin Pinyin In order to learn standard Chinese, one must learn its phonetic system first. Zhongwen Red Free set of systematic lessons for Mandarin Chinese. This page was last changed on 2 January 2018, at 22:58.
Collectively, they are known as CJK characters. Chinese characters number in the tens of thousands, though most of them are minor graphic variants encountered only in historical texts. Studies in China have shown that functional literacy in written Chinese requires a knowledge of between three and four thousand characters. When the script was first used in the late 2nd millennium BC, words of Old Chinese were generally monosyllabic, and each character denoted a single word. The most common process has been to form compounds of existing words, written with the characters of the constituent words. Words have also been created by adding affixes, reduplication and borrowing from other languages. Many characters have multiple readings, with instances denoting different morphemes, sometimes with different pronunciations.
In modern Standard Chinese, one fifth of the 2,400 most common characters have multiple pronunciations. Often these readings are similar in sound and related in meaning. Middle Chinese forms are given in Baxter’s transcription, in which H denotes the departing tone. This is believed to reflect an ancient prefix, but scholars disagree on whether the voiced or voiceless form is the original root.