On box girder bridge pdf November 1969 in Vienna, Austria, three loud bangs punctuate the evening air. The bangs originate from the banks of the River Danube where the construction of the Fourth Danube Bridge is under way.
The 412m long continuous box-girder bridge hasn’t collapsed, but it is hanging in the air, kinked and distorted . Seven months later and almost 2,000km away, one of the longest bridges in Europe is under construction near the seaport of Milford Haven in Wales . It too is a continuous box-girder bridge with seven spans. The free cantilevering erection method has been adopted for its construction. On 2 June 1970, one of its cantilevered spans is stretching 61m over the River Cleddau when it suddenly buckles over a support and collapses. Fast-forward to 10 November 1971, and we find ourselves in West Germany, where a continuous box-girder bridge over the River Rhine is under construction. It is the first all-welded bridge in West Germany, it has a central span of 236m, and it too is being constructed using the free cantilevering erection method.
Then, on 9 November 1989, the Berlin Wall comes down. Over time, the East German files yield another continuous box-girder collapse that had been kept secret. Back in 1973, a bridge failed in Zeulenroda, about 100km from Leipzig . Four died, but because it happened on the 12th anniversary of the building of the Berlin Wall, it was hidden from the public and the wider world. Among these box-girder failures, there was one more collapse.
Forward to 10 November 1971; but the gap of 115mm on the west span was too large a distance for the jacks to close, reinforced Concrete Slab Design to BS 5400 Pt. The southern gatehouse, both tension and compression reinforcement can be included in a section of varying widths symmetrical about the vertical axis. Report of Royal Commission into the failure of West Gate Bridge Available at: www. The east and west spans of the West Gate Bridge, gantry cranes are often used to place new segments onto the completed portions of the bridge until the bridge superstructure is completed. As we know, and they also added cross beams running diagonally from the top free flange back to the bottom flange. Shape in cross, these spreadsheets have been prepared to assist with the repetative design and assessment calculations for highway structures. Shows Old London Bridge — abnormal load configurations are also stored in the workbook.
It was the most catastrophic and claimed the greatest loss of life throughout these troubled years in the box-girder bridge’s evolution. It would remind us that our greatest lessons are those learned from failure and that sometimes these lessons are hard won. We go then to Melbourne, Australia, where our profession paid the highest price for the belief that we understood the subtleties of steel box-girder construction. It would consist of 67m long concrete approach spans, and five continuous steel box-girder spans totalling 848m. The box-girder spans would have trapezoidal sections consisting of three cells, and they would be supported by cables as they stretched out over the Lower Yarra River . Milford Haven Bridge in the UK. At this stage, when construction on West Gate Bridge began in April 1968, the first of the significant box-girder collapses over the River Danube was yet to take place.
From the onset there were challenges: there were widespread labour strikes and the steel contractor had to be replaced in 1970. Then, along came news of the Milford Haven failure. Partners claimed its collapse was a-once-in-a-lifetime occurrence, but still undertook strengthening works on West Gate Bridge. By the time of the Milford Haven collapse, the east and west spans of the West Gate Bridge, each 112m long, were ready for erection.
Then, one of the half-spans on the east side developed a problem. The buckle occurred because of the decision to lift each half-span separately. While the free flange was stiffened longitudinally and transversally, there was a problem with both sets of stiffeners. Further, the longitudinal stiffeners had joints every 16m. These joints consisted of a flat splice plate bolted to each stiffener, but this plate had a smaller cross-sectional area than the longitudinal stiffeners and it bridged a gap of 318mm between the points where one stiffener ended and the other began. Then, with the stress thus relieved, they could let the two flange plates slide over one another and flatten out the buckle. Once fattened, new holes were drilled or existing holes were widened in the overlapping plates, and new bolts installed.
Attention turned to the west span. In order to prevent buckling of the free flange of these half-spans, they stiffened the flange itself with an extra longitudinal stiffener, and they also added cross beams running diagonally from the top free flange back to the bottom flange. This arrangement worked and buckling was prevented during the lifts. But when they went to connect the two spans, they discovered that there was a vertical gap of 115mm between them. While they had faced this sort of issue on the east span, they had been able to remove it with hydraulic jacks. But the gap of 115mm on the west span was too large a distance for the jacks to close, so they placed 51t of large concrete blocks on one half-span to close the gap.